Salesforce Selective Queries

A basic understanding of the selective query concept is fundamental to scalability on the Salesforce platform. Non-selective queries have a significant performance impact on List Views, Reports and SOQL and can often result in Apex Trigger runtime exceptions as below – as the data volume increases over time.

System.QueryException Cause: null Message: Non-selective query against large object type (more than 200000 rows)

SOQL queries executed from Apex Triggers have to be selective where the record count in the queried object is 200,000 or more. The determination of a selective query is a function of volume plus field-level selectivity. It is therefore the case that the selectivity state of a given query is volatile meaning in practical terms that the initiating Apex Trigger may work one day and not the next.

Selective Query Definition

Selectivity is determined by the index state of the query filter conditions and the number of records the filter returns (selectivity) versus the object total records. The thresholds below show the difference between the selectivity calculation for a standard index versus a custom index.

Selectivity Thresholds:
Standard Index – 30% (first 1M) then 15%
Custom Index – 10% (first 1M) then 5%

Unary filter:

e.g. select Name from Account where IndexedField__c=’ABC’

With a custom index on IndexedField__c the filter must return <10% of the total records in the object to be considered selective – up to the first 1 million records from that point the threshold drops to 5%.

Multiple filters AND (exclusively):

e.g. select Name from Account where IndexedField__c=’ABC’ and SecondIndexedField__c=’123′

The Query Optimiser will set the leading operation on the basis of lowest cost. If no filters are selective a table scan is performed.

If all filters have an index then a Composite Index Join optimisation can be applied.

In this case each filter must be less than 2x (two-times) the selectivity threshold.
All filters combined must be less than selectivity threshold.

If all filter fields are standard then use the standard index selectivity threshold – otherwise use custom index selectivity threshold.

Multiple filters OR (at least one):

e.g. select Name from Account where IndexedField__c=’ABC’ or SecondIndexedField__c=’123′

Selective AND filter indexes could be set as the Leading Operation – if none exist, then a table scan occurs unless all filters have an index then a Composite Index Union optimisation becomes possible.

In this case each filter must be less than selectivity threshold.
All filters combined must be less than selectivity threshold.

If all fields are standard then use the standard index selectivity threshold – otherwise use custom index selectivity threshold.

Parent Field Filter:

e.g. select Name from Contact where IndexedField__c=’ABC’ and Account.IndexedField__c=’ABC’

Where parent object fields are referenced in a filter, each filter index is individually and the lowest cost option selected as the leading operation.

Note, the parent field is not indexed on the queried object, so Account.Id can incur a table scan on Opportunity whereas AccountId may allow the standard index to become the leading operation.

The notes above provide a basic outline of the concepts but should be sufficient to convey the key concepts.


Implementation Approach

As data volumes grow query behaviour can change dramatically, to mitigate this database queries originating in Apex code, list view and report definitions must consider the future peak data volume and field-level data characteristics (primarily selectivity). This considered approach can help identify an appropriate indexing strategy that maintains query performance by ensuring query selectivity. So, forward planning is absolutely key; queries should be designed to be selective up to the projected peak data volumes. Thinking ahead to this extent is very seldom applied in my experience, particularly where the Salesforce implementation evolves project-by-project and the longer term picture is not a priority.

In order to evaluate the selectivity of a given query – the following 2 approaches can be applied.

REST API Query Resource Feedback Parameter

The REST API exposes a Query resource that accepts an explain parameter which can set with a SOQL query, List View Id or Report Id. The results show the options considered by the Query Optimiser and the lowest cost option (leading operation) taken. A relative cost value of less than 1 indicates a selective query, anything higher indicates non-selective. The example below shows the output for a report where a report filter hits an indexed field.


Developer Console Query Plan

From Summer ’14 on the Developer Console can be enabled [Help>Preferences>Enable Query Plan] to display a Query Plan option on the Query Editor tab. The construct of the output is the same as the API approach. Note, this appproach is limited to SOQL queries.


The references section below provides link to the technical detail of the 2 approaches introduced above.



Query & Search Optimisation Cheat Sheet

Developing Selective Queries through the Query Resource Feedback Parameter Beta

Developer Console Query Editor

Improve performance with Custom indexes using Selective SOQL Queries

Custom Index Request Checklist

InvocableMethod Invocations via Process Builder

As I’ve previously stated the combination of Process Builder and Apex Actions is incredibly powerful.

This short post adds the answer to a frequently asked question; how many times is the InvocableMethod called when records are modified in bulk?

To answer this with an example. With default batch settings (200 records) and 201 modified records the InvocableMethod is called twice (2 times – 1 invocation per-batch), first call with 200 records then a second call with 1 record. Not 201 individual calls!

If the Process applies entry criteria met by only 10 of the first batch – plus the single record in the second batch – there would again be 2 calls (10, then 1). So the assertion holds true; one invocation per batch.

This bulk behaviour is why the @InvocableMethod input parameter is a list of course; however it isn’t obvious in the related documentation.

Process Builder Apex Actions

A technical best practice in the Salesforce domain is to employ Apex code predominantly as an enabler for the declarative platform capabilities. This light-touch approach is simple in concept; the minimum amount of Apex code necessary is introduced to enable non-technical build features to solution the functional requirement. In the majority case this works very well and provides a strong maintainability story. In more complex scenarios complete technical solution options can be warranted and are perfectly acceptable, but one should always preclude the Apex-as-glue approach first.

In practice this model can be challenging to implement. The solution design process must be driven by individuals who are both expert in the current-release declarative capabilities of the platform and have the skill and experience to deconstruct a requirement into a structured solution design composed of declarative and technical components. Typically functional experts revert to technical solution options as a last-resort and don’t always think in terms of blended solutions. Salesforce technical resources don’t usually have a deep understanding or practical experience of the functional capabilities of the platform – some do, most don’t consider this a development concern or don’t have the opportunity to build skills in this area.

The recent introduction of the (Lightning) Process Builder with its ability to invoke Apex Actions (via the InvocableMethod annotation) provides a powerful shared language between functional and technical perspectives, enabling a clear decomposition of functional and technical solution components. To elaborate on this, process automation solutions can be implemented (i.e. Processes) that are comprised of declarative functionality but also with delegation to Apex code where gaps exist. In other words a clear exemplar of the model described previously. Adding parameterised Apex Actions in this context enables declarative configuration of the technical component and removes the black-box issues related to Apex Trigger components etc.

The screenshot below shows an Apex Action invocation within the Process Builder design environment.

Process Builder - Apex Action

In consideration to the concept of Processes (or indeed Flows – the technology that underpins Process Builder) invoking Apex Actions, a new development paradigm becomes possible, one that avoids black box, inflexible Apex Triggers and places control and configuration in the hands of non-technical resources (business analyst, administrator, app builder etc.).

From the development perspective Apex Actions should be coded as reusable, encapsulated components with flexible configuration (via parameters) and simply dropped into Processes as required. Note, Actions are also invocable directly from the REST API – a further point of potential for this approach. This component-based architecture should work well for all parties. The question of when to write an Apex Trigger or an Apex Action will be influenced primarily by factors such as whether the logic applies to all record modifications or is selective and whether bulk operations must be supported at default batch sizes – at the time of writing there are governor limit considerations with Process Builder that should not apply to correctly written bulk-safe Apex Triggers.

Platform Cache – Salesforce Winter ’16

This video post provides a technical overview of the Platform Cache feature added in the Winter ’16 release.

Apex Unit Test Best Practice

This post provides some general best practices in regard to Apex Unit Tests. This isn’t a definitive list by any means, as such I’ll update the content over time.

Top 10 Best Practices (in no order)

1. TDD. Follow Test Driven Development practice wherever possible. There is no excuse for writing unit tests after the functional code, such an approach is indicative of a flawed development process or lax standards. It’s never a good idea to estimate or deliver functional code without unit tests – the client won’t appreciate an unexpected phase of work at the point of deployment, not to mention the pressure this approach puts on system testing.

2. Code Quality. Ensure unit tests are written to cover as many logical test cases as possible, code coverage is a welcome by-product but should always be a secondary concern. Developers who view unit tests as a necessary evil, or worse, need to be educated in the value of unit tests (code quality, regression testing, early identification of logical errors etc. etc.).

3. Test Code Structure. For some time now I’ve adopted a Test Suite, Test Helper pattern. A suite class groups tests related to a functional area. A test helper class creates test data for a primary object such as Account (i.e. AccountTestHelper.cls), secondary objects such as price book entry would be created within the product test helper class. The suite concept provides a logical and predictable structure, the helper concept emphasises that test data creation should be centralised.

4. Test Code Structure. Put bulk tests in a separate class e.g. AccountTriggerBulkTestSuite.cls (in addition to AccountTriggerTestSuite.cls). Bulk tests can take a long time to complete – this can be really frustrating when debugging test failures – particularly in production.

5. Test Code Structure. Ensure test classes contain a limited number of test methods. I tend to limit this to 10. As with point 4, this relates to test execution time, individual methods can’t be selectively executed – the smallest unit of execution is the class.

6. SeeAllData. Always use SeeAllData=true by exception and at the test method level only. Legacy test code related to pricebooks that historically required this can now be refactored to use Test.getStandardPricebookId(). Also, set the [Independent Auto-Number Sequence] flag to avoid gaps in auto number sequences through the creation of transient test data.

7. Test Case Types. As the Apex Language reference proposes, write unit tests for the following test case types.

Positive Behaviour – logical tests that ensure the code behaves as expected and provides successful positive outcomes
Negative Behaviour – logical tests for code behaviour where parameters are missing, or records do not adhere to defined criteria – does the code protect the integrity of unaffected records – does the runtime exception handling function as expected
Bulk – trigger related tests primarily – how the code behaves with a batch of 200 records – mix the batch composition to stress the code against governor limits
Restricted User – test relevant combinations of user role and profile – this test case type is prone to failure through sharing model adjustments – triggers should delegate processing to handler classes that have the “with sharing” modifier

8. Debugging. Always use the syntax below for debug statements within code (test and non-test code). An efficient practice is to add sensible outputs whilst writing the code. This approach avoids a code update or re-deployment to add debug statements during error diagnostics. Note – in such cases Checkpoints could be a better approach anyway – particularly in production. The use of the ERROR logging level enables a restrictive log filter to be applied such a clear debug log is produced and max log size truncation is avoided – note, log filters can also have a positive impact on transaction execution time.

System.debug(LoggingLevel.ERROR, 'my message');

9. Commenting. Always comment test methods verbosely to ensure the test case intent is clear and that the test code can be mapped to the related non-test code. Test classes should be fully self documenting and be viewed as the primary enabler for the future maintenance of the non-test code.

10. Maintenance. Test code is highly dependent on the environment state. Any configuration change can require test code to be updated; this could be a new mandatory custom field or a sharing model adjustment. In many cases the resultant unit test failure state is not encountered until the next deployment to production, which can’t proceed until the tests are fixed. This scenario will be familiar to many people. The mitigation requires the local administrator to understand the risk, frequently run the full set of unit tests and to manage the test code update cycle proactively.

Example Test Suite Class

Name: RecordMergeTestSuite.cls
Copyright © 2014  CloudMethods
Test suite covering RecordMerge operations.
Bulk tests are defined in the class RecordMergeBulkTestSuite.cls
Ver. Author        Date        Detail
1.0  Mark Cane&    2014-09-16  Initial development.
public with sharing class RecordMergeTestSuite {
     Test cases:	
        singleTestCase1 - postive code behaviour/expected outcome test case 1.
        negativeTestCase1 - negative outcome test case 1.
        restrictedUserTestCase1 - postive/negative code behaviour in the context of specific user role/profile combinations.
        future test cases to cover : * some coverage provided
        1. tbd.
        2. tbd.
    /* */
	static testMethod void singleTestCase1() {
		// Test case 1 : postive outcome test case 1.

		// Steps - 1. 
		// Logical tests - 1.
    /* */    

    /* */
	static testMethod void negativeTestCase1() {
		// Negative test case 1 : negative outcome test case 1.

		// Steps - 1.
		// Logical tests - 1. 
    /* */    

    /* */
	static testMethod void restrictedUserTestCase1() {
		// Restricted user test case 1 : postive/negative code behaviour in the context of specific user role/profile combinations.		    	    			
		List<User> users;
		System.runAs(new User(Id = Userinfo.getUserId())){ // Avoids MIXED_DML_OPERATION error (when test executes in the Salesforce UI).
			users = UserTestHelper.createStandardUsers(2, 'Sophie', 'Grigson');
			accounts = AccountTestHelper.createAccounts(1, 'Abc Incorporated');
			// Steps - 1. 
			// Logical tests - 1.
    /* */
	// helper methods    
    private static void setup(){
    // end helper methods

Technical Naming Conventions

Challenge – outside of the ISV development model there is no concept of an application namespace that can be used to group the technical components related to a single logical application. To mitigate this issue, and to provide a means to isolate application-specific components, naming schemes such as application specific prefixes are commonplace.

Risk – without application/module/function namespaces etc. all technical components reside as an unstructured (unpackaged) collection, identified only by their metadata type and name. As such maintainability and future extensibility can be inhibited as the technical components related to multiple logical applications converge into a single unstructured code-base.

Options –
1. Application specific prefix. All components related to a specific application are prefixed with an abbreviated application identifier, e.g. Finance Management = “fm”, HR = “hr”. This option addresses the requirement for isolation, but inevitably causes issue where helper classes or classes related to common objects span multiple applications. This option has the advantage of minimising the effort required to remove functionality related to a logical application, only shared classes would need to be modified.

2. Object centric approach. In considering a Salesforce org as a single consolidated codebase where most components (technical or declarative) relate to a primary data object, a strict object-centric approach can be taken to the naming of technical components. With such a mindset, the concept of a logical application becomes less significant, instead components are grouped against the primary data object and shared across the custom functionality that may be related to the object. A strictly governed construction pattern should promote this concept with the main class types defined on a per-object basis. Functional logic not related to a single object should only every reside in a controller class, web service class or helper class. In the controller and web service cases, the class should orchestrate data transactions across multiple objects to support specific functionality. In the helper class case a function-centric approach is appropriate.

In architectural terms, an object-centric data layer is introduced that is called from a function-centric presentation layer.

presentation layer [Object][Function].page —

data layer [Object][Class Type].cls —

business logic layer [Function][Helper|Utility]–

The downside of this approach is contention on central classes in the data layer when multiple developers are working in a single org, plus the effort required to remove functionality on a selective basis. In the latter case using a source code management system such as Git with a smart tagging strategy can help to mitigate the issue. Additionally, code commenting should always be used to indicate class dependencies (i.e. in the header comment) and to convey the context in which code runs, this is imperative in ensuring future maintainability.

Recommended Approach –
1. Option 2. In summary, naming conventions should not artificially enforce the concept of a logical application – the composition of which is open to change by Admins, instead an object-centric approach should be applied that promotes code re-use and discipline in respect adherence to the applied construction patterns.

Whichever approach is taken, it is highly useful to consider how the consolidated codebase will evolve as future functionality and related code is introduced. A patterns-based approach can mitigate the risk of decreasing maintainability as the codebase size increases.

Apex Trigger Exceptions

Custom Apex Triggers execute on standard CRM objects (Account, Contact, Lead etc.) and custom objects in response to all data modifications applied via the Salesforce web application, API transactions and custom Apex script. As such it is imperative that trigger code adheres to patterns that promote performance and maintainability, guards against recursive behaviour and most critically protects data integrity.

Apex code outside of triggers (Batch Apex, Visualforce Controllers etc.) is completely isolated to the specific context, trigger code is not; the effect of errant code is felt across the standard web app, mobile apps, API-based integration flows, data loads and so on. As such triggers must be used judiciously and avoided wherever possible on the core standard objects. I often come across multiple complex triggers defined on Account, where the logic applied is non-time critical and could have been handled by Batch Apex, or indeed by declarative methods. In certain circumstances this idealistic view is impractical and triggers are a necessary friend. When writing triggers always stick to a proven pattern, good examples provided by community experts are easy to find, and read the relevant sections in the Apex Language Reference if you haven’t done so for a while.

This post aims to provide some practical insight related to exception behaviour within Apex Triggers that may not be obvious from the referenced resources.

Key Concepts
1. DML Processing Mode
All bulk DML transactions on the platform run in either allOrNothing or partial processing mode. In some cases the behaviour is implicit and fixed, in other cases flags can be set to override the default behaviour.

– Apex Database statements (e.g. update contactsToUpdate;)

partial processing
– Apex Database methods (Database.update(contactsToUpdate);. The default behaviour can be overridden via DmlOptions.
– API (default behaviour – can be overridden)

2. .addError()
The .addError(custom message) method can be invoked at the record or field level within the trigger context to flag a record as invalid. This is particularly useful in asserting logical errors. A best practice in regard to the custom messages is to use Custom Labels with a defined Apex Trigger Error category.

3. Runtime Exceptions
If an unhandled runtime exception is thrown then the Apex Transaction will immediately rollback and Apex exception notifications will occur. Structured exception handling can be added to the trigger code to catch runtime exceptions and to apply custom handling logic.

Apex Trigger – Exception Test Cases
The following test cases highlight the impact of the .addError() method and runtime exceptions in the context of the 2 processing modes. Tests were conducted using Execute Anonymous and the Apex Data Loader at API version 30.0.

Test Case 1 – Does code continue after .addError()?
Result: Yes (this is necessary in both allOrNothing and partial processing cases to gather a complete set of errors).

Test Case 2.1 – all_or_none – Does .addError() rollback the transaction if any subset of records has .addError() applied?
Result: Yes – Full rollback.

Test Case 2.2 – all_or_none – Does .addError() rollback the transaction if all records have .addError() applied?
Result: Yes – Full rollback.

Test Case 2.3 – all_or_none – Does an un-handled runtime exception rollback the transaction if no records have .addError() applied?
Result: Yes – Full rollback.

Test Case 2.4 – all_or_none – Does a handled runtime exception rollback the transaction if no records have .addError() applied?
Result: No – Records are committed (complete trigger context – regardless of which record caused the runtime exception).

Test Case 3.1 – partial – Does .addError() rollback the transaction if any subset of records has .addError() applied?
Result: Yes – Full rollback of all uncommitted changes, the trigger fires again for the subset of records that have not had addError() applied. Up to 2 retries are performed, after which the “Too many batch retries in the presence of Apex triggers and partial failures.” exception is thrown.

Test Case 3.2 – partial – Does .addError() rollback the transaction if all records have .addError() applied?
Result: Yes – Full rollback.

Test Case 3.3 – partial – Does an un-handled runtime exception rollback the transaction if no records have .addError() applied?
Result: Yes – Full rollback.

Test Case 3.4 – partial – Does a handled runtime exception rollback the transaction if no records have .addError() applied?
Result: No – Records are committed (complete trigger context – regardless of which record caused the runtime exception).

Test Case 4 – partial – In a partial failure case are static variables set within the original trigger invocation reset before retry invocations?
Result No – Static variables are not reset between trigger invocations. This means that statics guard variables defined to protect against recursive behaviour will stop trigger logic being applied to records processed by retry invocations.

1) In all cases .addError() results in the full Apex Transaction being rolled back. Custom logging schemes such as writing exceptions to a Custom Object (including via @future) or sending notification emails are futile gestures when employed in conjunction with .addError().

2) Handled runtime exceptions result in the Apex Transaction being committed, unless .addError() is applied to at least one record.

3) In the partial processing case, governor limits are reset to their original state for each retry trigger invocation, static variables are not.

4) Where static guard variables are used to protect against re-execution of the trigger logic via field updates within update DML transactions, partial processing retry trigger invocations will also be blocked. Such invocations are consistent with those initiated by workflow field updates later in the order of execution.

In order to distinguish between a field update trigger execution and a partial processing retry it becomes difficult to use static variables – batch sizes can be equivalent, sequencing is unpredictable etc.

One possible approach is to use a custom field on the target object (Is Workflow Processing?), a field update action would be added to set this to “True” alongside the existing actions. In the trigger code we can now reliably test this field state to identify a workflow field update initiated trigger execution. The trigger code must always reset the field to “False” before returning, such that any partial processing retry executions safely proceed. Where trigger logic resides in an after update trigger, a before update trigger could be added simply for convenience of reseting the field – in this case a static could be set in the before context and referenced in the after context.

It’s possible there are more efficient ways to provide a robust solution to this. A complete Apex based solution would definitely be preferable to the custom field based solution.

Visualforce Controller Class Convention

A quick post to outline an informal convention for the definition of a Visualforce controller class, key maintainability characteristics being predictable structure, readability and prominent revision history. All developers have a subjective preference in this regard, however consistency is key, particularly in the Salesforce context where multiple developers/consultancies contribute to a codebase over its lifetime. A simple, logical approach always makes sense to maximise adoption.

Name:  MyPageController.cls
Copyright © 2014  Force365
Controller class for the VF page -
Ver. Author        Date        Detail
1.0  Mark Cane&    2014-05-20  Class creation.
1.1  Mark Cane&    2014-05-21  Initial coding for page initialisation.
public with sharing class MyPageController {
	//& public-scoped properties.	
	public List<MyWrapperClass> wrapperClassInstances { get; set; }
	//& End public-scoped properties.
	//& private-scoped variables.
	private Boolean isInitialised=false;
	//& End private-scoped variables.
	//& page initialisation code.
	public MyPageController(){
	private void initialise(){ isInitialised=true; }
	//& End page initialisation code.
	//& page actions.
	public PageReference saveAction(){
		return null;
	//& End page actions.
	//& data access helpers (class methods accessed from binding expressions).
	//& End data access helpers.
	//& controller code Helpers (class methods providing helper functions to data access helpers or actions).
	//& End controller code helpers.
	//& inner classes (wrapper classes typically, extending SObjects for convenience in the UI).
	public class MyWrapperClass {
		public MyWrapperClass(){}
	//& End inner classes.

Custom Settings Naming Conventions

A quick post to share some thoughts on the standardisation of naming conventions applied to Custom Settings. With Custom Objects it is an obvious best practice to mirror exactly the conventions applied by the Standard Objects, there are no reasons not to adhere to this approach, none. With Custom Settings however there is no comparable reference and as such a great deal of variation exists in the naming conventions applied. For many, this matters little, however I’d make the usual arguments about maintenance, readability, build quality through predictable convention and so forth. There’s also merit in clearly distinguishing Hierarchy from List types and ensuring a meaningful naming for the latter, which can be utilised across many declarative build elements.

I use the naming conventions defined below, for simplicity and clarity reasons. All that really matters is that a standardised approach is taken.

1. Custom Setting Label – Pluralised in all cases (e.g. Data Sources). No “Setting[s]” suffix.

2. API Name – List Settings
– [Data entity that each list entry represents]ListSetting__c

Each record represents an individual entry and as such singular naming is applied, as per objects.

Examples – List
e.g. Analytic Views – AnalyticViewListSetting__c
e.g. Data Sources – DataSourceListSetting__c

3. API Name – Hierarchy Settings
– [Function of the settings]Settings__c

Each record represents the same set of settings applied at different levels. In concept this differs from objects and list settings, the plural naming reflects this.

Examples – Hierarchy
e.g. Org Behaviour Settings – OrgBehaviourSettings__c
e.g. My App Settings – MyApplicationSettings__c

As a further best practice, it is important that any requisite logic applied to the population of the Name field is described in the Custom Setting Description field. If the population is immaterial then simply state as such. Given the inability to relate settings at the attribute level, it can be the case that the Name field plays some role in grouping related settings.

Finally, where possible always retrieve Custom Settings data via the Custom Settings Methods – not via SOQL query. In the latter case the Application Cache is bypassed and the query counts against the limits context within the Apex transaction.

Any-org Design Considerations

The concept of any-org development is an interesting one. The strict definition, to my mind, being the development of a set of components (perhaps packaged) that are designed and coded specifically to install and function in any Salesforce org. This is typically an ISV concern, where testing and maintaining a single-code base can be highly desirable over managing a base package plus multiple extension packages, or in the worse case multiple independent packages. Either way an ISV needs to maximise the addressable market for a product whilst minimising the ongoing effort to do so. The same drivers do not apply in the single-org case, where a consultancy and/or in-house team are delivering technical components to be installed into a known Salesforce org (or multi-org estate). In the single-org case it is common practice to see technical components designed and coded for the current state of the target org(s), with no consideration to how the org(s) may evolve over time. This can often result in situations where costly technical work is required simply to activate an optional product feature, or to provide user access in another locale. In such cases the situation can often be compounded by the fact that the original development team are no longer available.

In short, in my view some degree of future-proofing should be considered in designing for the single-org model, using the techniques applied by ISVs in the any-org model.

    Any-org Design Considerations

  1. Optional Features
  2. Examples; Person Accounts, Quotes

    There are a multitude of optional product features which can be enabled directly in the Salesforce web application UI or via Salesforce support. In the majority of cases such feature activations irreversibly add new objects and fields to the Salesforce instance. From the perspective of keeping simple orgs uncluttered by objects related to unused features this makes perfect sense. From the perspective of designing for the any-org model, this approach poses a few challenges. The main challenge being that Apex code won’t compile where a static reference exists to an object (or field) that doesn’t exist in the org. There is no simple answer to this, instead a selective approach should be taken where optional features that may already be active (or could in the future be activated), that have some impact on your code are accommodated. The approach to achieving this for any-org Apex code basically involves replacing static references with Dynamic SOQL and Dynamic Apex (see coding techniques below).

  3. Multi-currency
  4. The default currency mode of a Salesforce org is single currency, the majority stay this way. It is however common to have multi-currency and perhaps advanced currency management (ACM) activated in orgs where business operations are international. Activation of multi-currency often occurs once the Salesforce org has become established, perhaps in a single region. This can be problematic where technical customisations have been added that aren’t currency aware.

    In the any-org case, all Apex code should be multi-currency aware and use Dynamic SOQL to add the CurrencyIsoCode field to all object queries involving currency fields. Additionally, currency aware logic should include checks to ensure that related transactions are the same currency, and that custom analytics are presenting data in the corporate currency (default and therefore expected behaviour for the native reporting functions). Note, the behaviour of aggregate functions involving currency fields must also be handled.

  5. Editions Support
  6. A key design decision for ISVs is the Salesforce editions to be supported by their managed package. This one has less relevance to the single-org model, unless the multi-org estate includes different editions.

    It is possible to group editions into two distinct groups;
    1. Group (or Team) Edition and Professional Edition
    2. Enterprise Edition and Unlimited Edition

    In the case of group 1 assume that standard objects such as Product, Pricebook2, PricebookEntry, RecordType do not exist and ensure no static references exist in the code. The OrganizationType field on the Organization object tells us which edition the code is executing within.

    public static Boolean isTeamOrProEdition(){
    	if (isTeamOrProEdition==null){		
    		List<Organization> orgs = [select OrganizationType from Organization where Id=:UserInfo.getOrganizationId() limit 1];
    		if (orgs.size()>0)				
    			isTeamOrProEdition=(orgs[0].OrganizationType=='Team Edition' || orgs[0].OrganizationType=='Professional Edition');
    	return isTeamOrProEdition;
  7. Internationalisation
  8. Whether an international user base is anticipated or not it is general software development best practice to externalise string literals into resource files. In the Salesforce context this means Custom Labels. A best practice here is to apply strict categorisation and a meaningful naming convention. Also ensure all literals are externalised not just labels in the UI, for example trigger error messages.

    Another consideration for i18n is the use of currency and date formatting helpers. Where UI components do not apply default formatting for an SObject field you need to handle this in code. An i18nHelper class which translates ISO locale and currency codes to date format strings and currency format strings plus symbols respectively can be very helpful.

    Useful abbreviations:
    i18n – internationalisation; development practice enabling support for localisation.
    l11n – localisation; act of localising an internationalised software product for a specific locale.

  9. Profile Permissions
  10. Visualforce pages are preprocessed for components directly bound to SObject fields where the user profile does not have CRUD or FLS permissions. In such cases the fields are not displayed or are made read-only, depending on visibility state. This comes as a surprise for many developers who assume that User Profile permissions are entirely ignored on Visualforce pages.

    reference: Enforcing_CRUD_and_FLS

    In the any-org model, where direct SObject field binding is being used in a Visualforce page, this may require a manual check during initialisation to protect the functional integrity of the page. For example, a custom page with no fields displayed and no explanation is not a great user experience, instead the page should simply inform the user they don’t have sufficient permissions, they can then take this up with their Administrators.

    private Boolean hasRequiredFLS(){    	
        // rule 1: all custom fields must be accessible.
        // rule 2: check isUpdateable on all fields where inline editing offered.
        Schema.DescribeFieldResult d;
        Map<String, Schema.SObjectField> siFieldNameToToken=Schema.SObjectType.SalesInvoice__c.fields.getMap();
        for (Schema.SObjectField f : siFieldNameToToken.values()){    		
        	d = f.getDescribe();
        	if (!d.isCustom()) continue;
        	if (!d.isAccessible()) return false;
        d = siFieldNameToToken.get('InvoiceDate__c').getDescribe();
        if (!d.isUpdateable()) 
        else {
        	d = siFieldNameToToken.get('DueDate__c').getDescribe();
        	if (!d.isUpdateable()) 
        	else this.isInlineEditable=true;
        return true;
    Coding Techniques

  1. Dynamic SOQL
  2. Do not statically reference objects or fields that may not exist in the org. Instead compose Dynamic SOQL queries and execute via Database.query(). With this approach, you can build the required query using flags which indicate the presence of optional feature fields such as RecordTypeId, CurrencyIsoCode etc. The Apex Language Reference provides good coverage of Dynamic SOQL. Be very careful to ensure that your composed string does not include user supplied text input – this would open up a vulnerability to SOQL injection security vectors.

    public static Id getStandardPricebookId(){
    	if (standardPricebookId==null){			
    		String q='select Id, isActive from Pricebook2 where IsStandard=true';
    		SObject p = Database.query(q);
    		if (!(Boolean)p.get('IsActive')){
    			update p;
    	return standardPricebookId;
    public SalesInvoice__c retrieveSalesInvoice(String siId){
            //& Using dynamic Apex to retrieve fields from the fieldset to create a soql query that returns all fields required by the view.
            String q='select Id,Name,OwnerId';
            for(Schema.FieldSetMember f : SObjectType.SalesInvoice__c.FieldSets.invoices__Additional_Information.getFields()){
                if (!q.contains(f.getFieldPath())) q+=','+f.getFieldPath();
            if (UserInfo.isMultiCurrencyOrganization()) q+=',CurrencyIsoCode';			
            if (AppHelper.isPersonAccountsEnabled()) q+=',PersonEmail,PersonContactId';  
        	q+=',(select Id,Description__c,Quantity__c from SalesInvoiceLineItems__r order by CreatedDate asc)';     		
            q+=' from SalesInvoice__c';
            q+=' where Id=\''+siId+'\'';
            return Database.query(q);
        } catch (Exception e){
            throw e;
  3. Dynamic Apex
  4. Do not statically reference objects or fields that may not exist in the org. Instead use Dynamic Apex techniques such as global describes and field describes. Where a new SObject is required, use the newSObject() method as shown below, this is particularly useful for unit test data creation. The Apex Language Reference provides good coverage of Dynamic Apex, every developer should be familiar with this topic.

    public static List<SObject> createPBE(Id pricebookId, List<SObject> products){
    	SObject pbe;
    	List<SObject> entries = new List<SObject>();		
    	Schema.SObjectType targetType = Schema.getGlobalDescribe().get('PricebookEntry');
    	if (targetType==null) return null;
    	for (SObject p : products){
    		pbe = targetType.newSObject();
    	if (entries.size()>0) insert entries;	
    	return entries;
  5. UserInfo Methods
  6. The UserInfo standard class provides some highly useful methods for any-org coding such as;
    isMultiCurrencyOrganization(), getDefaultCurrency(), getLocale() and getTimezone(). The isMultiCurrencyOrganization() method will be frequently used to branch code specific to multi-currency orgs.

    public static String getCorporateCurrency(){			
    	if (corporateCurrencyIsoCode==null){			
    		if (UserInfo.isMultiCurrencyOrganization()){
    			String q='select IsoCode, ConversionRate from CurrencyType where IsActive=true and IsCorporate=true';
    			List<SObject> currencies = Database.query(q);
    			if (currencies.size()>0)
    		return corporateCurrencyIsoCode;

  1. Unit Test Data
  2. In the any-org model the creation of unit test data can be a challenge due to the potential existence of mandatory custom fields and/or validation rules. To mitigate the former, Dynamic Apex can be used to identify mandatory fields and their data type such that test data can be added (via a factory pattern of some sort). In the latter case there is no way to reliably detect a validation rule condition and as such for ISVs it is a blessing that unit tests do not actual have to pass in a subscriber org (wrong as this may be in principle). In the single-org case we can improve on this (and we have to), by adding a global Validation Rule switch-off flag in a Org Behaviour Custom Setting (see previous post) – this approach is helpful in many areas but for unit test data creation it can isolate test code from Validation Rules added post-deployment. There’s a tradeoff here between protecting unit tests versus the risk of using test data that may not adhere to the current set of Validation Rules.

  3. Unit Test Code Coverage
  4. The addition of multiple conditional code paths, i.e. branching, for the any-org case makes it challenging to achieve a high code coverage percentage in orgs which do not have the accommodated features activated. For example, unit tests executing in a single currency org, will not be run code specific to multi-currency, and therefore the code coverage drops accordingly. To mitigate this, consider adding OR conditions to IF branches which include unit test flags and perhaps Test.isRunningTest() to cover as much code as possible before leaving the branch. During coding always strive to absolutely minimise the feature-specific code – this approach will help greatly in respect to unit test coverage.

  5. QA
  6. In the any-org model, it is imperative to test your code in an org with the accommodated features activated. This will require multiple QA orgs and can increase the overall testing overhead considerably. Also, factor in the lead time required to have features activated by Salesforce support, such as multi-currency and Person Accounts.

  7. Security
  8. Dynamic SOQL queries open up the possibility of SOQL-injection attacks where user-supplied text values are concatentated into an executed SOQL query string. Always sanitise and escape data values where such code behaviour is necessary.

  9. Governor Limits
  10. The any-org model is highly contingent upon the use of limited resources such as Apex Describes. As a best practice employ a helper class pattern with cached values.

    One Approach – Future Proofing Single-org Developments

    Optional Features – selective
    Multi-currency – yes
    Editions Support – no
    i18n – yes
    Unit Test Data – yes
    Profile Permissions – yes

    The list above is my default position on the approach to take on single-org developments, this can change significantly depending on the current state of the org in terms of configuration and customisation, plus the client perspective on the evolution of their Salesforce org and attitude toward investing in future-proofing/extensibility. In the single-org, consultancy project case it’s advisable to be completely open and let the client decide if the additional X% cost is worth the value. I think the real point here is that the conversation takes place and the client has the opportunity to make an informed decision.